Artificial intelligence (AI) is an intelligence that is achieved by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) of humans and animals. It is a branch of computer science that studies how intelligent agents work. AI deals with the simulation or building of conceptual or abstract models of natural intelligence.
The use of AI has become incorporated into many aspects of criminal justice, making its future incorporation as a tool for law enforcement more likely than ever before. Artificial Intelligence in Criminal Justice gives an overview on how to get started using AI in criminal justice settings and what types of applications are currently being studied by scientists across the world.
What Is Artificial Intelligence In Criminal Justice
The market research company IDC estimates that the size of the global AI market will reach roughly half a trillion US dollars by 2024, indicating that this incredibly potent technology will continue to gain appeal across a variety of industries.
The use of artificial intelligence in criminal justice is relatively new. It has been proven to be a useful, yet powerful tool for professionals who are trying to make sense of large data sets from various sources.
There are many benefits and applications of AI in criminal justice including the ability to analyse large amounts of data (e.g., email) and predict what a person will do next, helping law enforcement officials with decisions in complex situations.
Risks Of Artificial Intelligence In Criminal Justice
The criminal justice system in the United States relies heavily on risk assessment tools to determine which offenders should be detained pretrial and which can be safely released on bail.
There are a variety of criminal risk assessment algorithms in use, but most are based on statistical models that use historical crime data to predict future criminal behavior. These risk assessment algorithms have come under fire in recent years for being biased against certain groups, particularly young black men.
According to one study, judges were substantially more forgiving in their sentence choices in the early morning and immediately following lunch.
1. Dangers Of AI
There are a lot of potential dangers when using AI for criminal justice. This software can create an unfair advantage for people or organisations that have access to large amounts of money, data or computing power.
Furthermore, this technology is being used by many government agencies in areas including health care, education and finance. In addition to government agencies, there is also the risk that hackers could use this information to cause damage.
Likewise, there is the risk that data could be leaked if the AI has bugs or vulnerabilities which can be exploited by malicious actors.
Artificial intelligence has been seen as a positive force for good everywhere from health care to preventing deaths in war-torn countries. However, abuse of AI for criminal justice purposes can be seen as a negative force.
It has the ability to make decisions that are biased or unfair to innocent people. There are also the risks associated with AI being used to intentionally give wrong information to authorities or judges, thereby prejudicing cases.
3. Discrimination With AI
The application of AI for this reason represents a substantial advancement over earlier risk and need assessment techniques, many of which were interviews and questionnaires.
Artificial intelligence can often reflect an underlying bias in how it works and how this data is used. This means that artificial intelligence could lead to discriminatory decisions for certain individuals on the basis of race, religion, sexual orientation or other factors. This is a big problem which must be addressed by law enforcement and government officials everywhere.
4. Invasion Of Privacy
Often when using artificial intelligence in criminal justice, there is the potential to invade someone’s privacy. It can do so by automatically uploading, processing or even storing data that an individual does not want shared for public use.
This includes information about suspects or victims such as their phone numbers, location and details of past interactions with the police. This is a real concern because it can breach people’s privacy rights. It also gives the police a legal advantage if they are able to show they used AI in order to obtain evidence needed for their cases.
5. Challenges With Accuracy And Reliability
There are many challenges when it comes to accuracy of artificial intelligence in criminal justice systems. This includes things like testing the software to make sure it is completely accurate and reliable before it is used.
Artificial intelligence has been proven to be less reliable than human decision-makers in some criminal justice cases. Despite this, scientists are still looking into ways to improve AI’s accuracy and reliability.
6. Limited Accessibility
One of the greatest challenges for AI in criminal justice today is that it can be difficult for many people to access data that contains sensitive information such as private information or eyewitnesses’ testimony.
Unfortunately, these types of data can only be accessed by the authorities or those who have a law enforcement clearance or have been granted access by an authorised officer under law.
7. Online Harassment
One of the most dangerous potential pitfalls of AI in criminal justice is the way it can be misused online by people looking to harass individuals or organisations who have controversial views.
This often involves setting up fake accounts and profiles which are designed to look like they come from a trusted source. This can create huge issues for the victims who often do not know about the origins of these accounts and profiles that may be created in order to target them with hateful content, spam or malware.
To protect against these kinds of attacks, companies need to ensure their networks and security software is up-to-date with all patches and updates in place as much as possible.
8. Privacy dilemmas
As we said above, AI can often lead to discrimination. This is because AI has the power to make decisions based on racial biases or other factors that may reflect a social bias. At the same time, it has the ability to be misused by those who want to harass individuals with controversial views and in doing so, breach their privacy rights.
To avoid these kinds of privacy issues, it is vital that companies ensure their technology and tools are not being used in a way which breaches people’s rights. Otherwise, people could end up losing a lot of data and income as well as any assets they have had stored online or on their devices.
Benefits Of Artificial Intelligence In Criminal Justice
A new pretrial risk assessment tool is being developed that uses risk assessment algorithms to help determine whether a defendant should be released before trial. The goal is to create a fair trial process that takes into account the patterns represent existing issues and commit violent crimes.
The Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions is the most notable of these risk/needs assessment tools.
Predictive policing is a controversial law enforcement tactic that relies on data and analytics to identify potential crime hotspots and people who are at risk to commit crimes. Proponents of predictive policing argue that public safety assessment helps to prevent crime and keep the public safe, but critics say that it can lead to discrimination against people based on their socioeconomic status or other risk factors.
1. Reduced Costs
One of the very important benefits of AI in criminal justice systems is that it can reduce costs. Often, these systems are more accurate and reliable than human decision-makers and as such can take fewer resources to train.
This means that various agencies can end up using AI for tasks which would otherwise require a lot of people for much longer periods of time. This not only means there will be fewer people doing the task but it also reduces costs because organisations will use less resources in training their staff, especially when they are new to the industry or new to a particular task.
2. Improved Efficiency
Another benefit of AI in criminal justice is that it can help to improve efficiency. For example, artificial intelligence has the ability to handle a number of tasks at the same time and not be limited by human working hours, sleep or breaks.
Similarly, it can process information more quickly and efficiently than humans do in most cases. As a result, authorities and agencies who decide to use artificial intelligence in their work can often cut down on their overheads related to staff wages.
They can also cut down on time taken by staff to provide certain services and the need for extra staff when something needs to be done urgently.
3. Minimal Mistakes
For instance, there is a training programme for prisoners in Finnish jails that makes use of AI training algorithms.
Criminal justice systems are often full of opportunities for mistakes to be made. It can be difficult to ensure that human decision-makers are always right and in some cases, even if they buy into the ‘human factor’ where they make mistakes because they have a conscious, they will still make mistakes.
This can lead to people wrongly being charged with crimes or being punished to an unfair degree by a judge or jury. On the other hand, artificial intelligence has no human error which means it will almost always get things right in criminal justice systems.
4. Demonstration Of Legitimacy
One of the most important benefits of artificial intelligence in criminal justice systems is that it can help to prove the authority’s or agency’s legitimacy. This is because AI cannot lie so it will not be fooled by falsities presented by a criminal justice system.
As such, once AI has been trained then it can never make mistakes when presented with data. Police and other agencies can also use their equipment, tools and apps that have been created with AI to help them do their jobs better and show the trustworthiness of their organisation.
5. Greater Trust
An important benefit of artificial intelligence in criminal justice systems is that it leads to greater trust because the system and people who are using it are not connected to the system.
This means that people will have faith in the system and what it has been trained to do. It also means that people who use these systems will have much higher levels of trust in them and what they say.
This can be a very powerful tool for authorities as they might struggle to gain trust from some people they may need to work with, especially those who are more vulnerable or disadvantaged. In some cases, this could lead to fewer people being prosecuted for crimes or even a lesser degree of punishment than would otherwise be handed down by a human jury.
6. Greater Transparency
One of the most important benefits of AI in criminal justice is that it can help to increase transparency. This is one of the main reasons for using artificial intelligence in the first place because it can create a more trustable system.
As a result, people can rely more on what this technology says and even if they disagree with its findings, they will still ultimately have more trust in it because of its level of transparency.
For example, authorities can provide data and records so that people can see how the AI works and what decisions it has been making on their behalf. As a result, people will have much greater trust in the system and will not question or challenge its work as much as human decision-makers would be likely to do.
7. Increased Accuracy
According to reports, a high-profile criminal prison in China is reportedly constructing an AI network that will identify and monitor inmates around-the-clock and alert guards if anything seems out of the ordinary.
One of the main benefits of artificial intelligence in criminal justice systems is that it can lead to greater levels of accuracy. This has been demonstrated in various cases by the fact that technology has a much lower error rate than humans do, even if those humans are highly specialised officials or industry workers.
This means that people who are going to be judged by this technology or using this technology for their own purposes will have more faith in it and will feel safer about relying on its findings, especially when these are about something very important and crucial like health or safety.
8. Affordable Due Process
The final benefit of AI in criminal justice systems is that it can help to reduce the costs needed for due process. In most cases, these days criminal justice systems rely very heavily on human decision-makers who have to work out if a charge should be brought against someone, how much they should be charged with and how their guilt will be determined.
In order to achieve this, these systems require years of expensive training for the people involved and the allocations of very high resources to pay for this. Artificial intelligence offers a much cheaper alternative because it can often be used in less intensive ways or even as a replacement for human workers who are only needed part time.
There is a growing movement among experts and academics to use artificial intelligence in criminal justice systems. Many countries and jurisdictions are already using it as a part of their criminal justice system, including the UK and the US.
AI is being used to provide legal aid and advice to people who may not be able to afford human lawyers or may simply not want to go through all of the paperwork involved with hiring one.
In the future, artificial intelligence is likely to be used much more in criminal justice systems as authorities and agencies will have recognised that this technology can do much of the work for them or at least make it much easier for them.